Writing an essay/assignment
 

Main Contents Page

Before you start

STEP 1: STARTING out

STEP 2: FINDING

STEP 3: EVALUATE

STEP 4: Legal and ethical USE

STEP 5: COMMUNICATE

- Writing an essay/assignment

Consulting information sources

Reading and making notes

Compiling the bibliography

In-text referencing

Writing the first draft

Revising the assignment

Writing final draft

Collating the assignment

Checking the final draft

Example

- Tips for presentations

- Tips for posters

- Tips for brochures

- Tips for displays

- E-communication guidelines

 

Example: Specimen (sample) essay / assignment

A short example of what an academic essay or assignment should look like.

 Title page

 Do not number  your  title page.

 

 

ND: MANAGEMENT
Human Resource Management II

 

MANAGING ABSENTEEISM

Lecturer: Mrs B Smit
Date: 1 March 2004



Name: Ms N J Botha
Student number: 9603447

 


 Table of Contents

 NB.
 Ensure that the page  numbers in your  Table of Contents  correlate with  the  text of your  assignment.

 Always do your  Table of Contents  last.
   
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
      Page
1.
Introduction 1
2.
Reasons for absenteeism 1
3.
Effects of absenteeism 2
4.
Conclusions 4
5.
Bibliography 5
       
       

 The text of your  assignment, with  pages and sections  clearly numbered,  with a coherent  introduction and  conclusion.

 Spacing: 1.5 for text.

 NB. Check that you  have:

 1. stuck to the topic
 2. displayed clear,  logical development  and organisation:  spacing,  paragraphing,  numbering etc.  should be logical and  consistent
 3. used correct  referencing  techniques
 4. checked spelling,  grammar and  punctuation
 5. have written objectively,  in an impersonal  academic style

 Note: Long quote  indented in smaller  font. Use font size  10.
 
MANAGING ABSENTEEISM
1.
Introduction
   
  Absenteeism is a costly and disruptive problem and places unnecessary pressure on staff that are at work. Until they investigate, companies normally do not realise the cost of absenteeism until they actually measure it.
   
2.
Reasons for absenteeism
   
  According to Van der Merwe (1988:7-8) the reasons for absenteeism can be devided in three categories, namely personal factors, organisational factors and attitudinal factors.
   
  Markowich (1996:116) states that some employees have the mentality that the "time is due to me - whether I'm sick or not", or see sick leave as "use-or-lose benefits".
   
3.
Effects of absenteeism
   
  Absenteeism has many devastating effects on organisations all around the world.

Perry (1997:9) states that:
   
 

"The real cost of chronic absenteeism then is lowered morale among other employees who must shoulder the work load, lost revenue from sales not made, the loss of customers who flee to competitors for better service, a decline in business from poor service and the expense of additional temporary workers."

   
4.
Conclusion
   
  What became clear in this study was that it is extremely important for staff to see that absenteeism would not be tolerated, otherwise it would lead to worsening absenteeism and a host of other negative effects on the workers and on the organisation. The sooner management and supervisors act on absenteeism, the better for the department, organisation and the employees.

It is important to realise that there are many success stories in business where absenteeism was reduced to an acceptable rate.
   

 A bibliography of  all sources  consulted, in  alphabetical  order.

 This bibliography is  according to the  Harvard style.

 How to compile a  bibliography:


 Harvard style
 APA style
 Chicago style
 Vancouver style
5.
Bibliography
  Markowich, M M. Eckberg, S. 1996. Get control of the absentee-minded. Personnel Journal, 115-120, December.
   
  Perry, P M. 1997. Confronting the no-show. American Nurseryman, 185:89-95, January 15.
   
  Van der Merwe, R. Miller, S. 1988. Measuring absence and labour turnover. Johannesburg. Lexicon Publishers.