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Prokaryotic Cells - Bacteria

Prokaryotic cells are typically about ten times smaller than eukaryotic cells. In addition prokaryotic cells do not possess the more complex internal structures present in eukaryotic cells. Bacteria are all prokaryotes, extremely diverse, tremendously abundant, and found everywhere. All have a cell membrane (CM on image Below) which is surrounded by a cell wall (CW on image below). Many bacteria also have a protective layer composed of lipds and polysaccharides outside the cell wall. The interior of the bacterium (the cytoplasm) houses the genetic material, usually a single circular chromosome.

The image below is a transmission electron microscope image of rod-shaped bacteria, some of which are dividing by binary fission. 

Bacterium 1

 

The image below is a transmission electron microscope image of a longitudinal section through a bacterium. CW = cell wall; CM = cell membrane.

Bacterium 2

Last Modified: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 10:41:54 SAST