Academic syllabus

The following paragraphs give a sumary about the content of the different modules in HKE.

Click here to go directly to a specific course:

HKE 1

The following modules make up the HKE I course. Please note that the details listed under each module are a guideline only and may be subject to change.

Fundamental Concepts (part 1) in HKE 101 (M. Goebel)

The objective of this module is to establish the appropriate "mind-set" for a thorough understanding of the study of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. Based on the complex set of objectives studying the Human Factor within the different contexts of life, the different focuses of study are outlined. This is embedded into the historical development of studying human performance, human health and human labour in order to explain the basic concepts of study that have developed since then. From this, students will learn about the different approaches to study the Human Factor from an anatomical/mechanical, physiological, mental, psychological, social and economical perspective, what establishes the holistic approach of HKE. Topics include:

• Concepts of health - the ultimate objective of Human Factors study
• The physical, social and economic environment of human activity and its relationship to study the Human Factor
• History of researching human performance, human health and human labour
• Concepts of the cognate disciplines of HKE
• Human variability
• Balancing performance and health in the different environments
• Concepts of tasks and resources
• Effects of behaviour and environmental conditions
• Holistic approach of Human Factors study
In the Ergonomics section of this module different domains of work life are highlighted with their specific challenges for ergonomics intervention. Basic principles of analysis and design are applied using such examples. Topics include:
• Objectives and basic paradigms of ergonomics
• Safety and Health legislation
• Examples from work life showing the different objectives and different approaches of ergonomics interventions
• Analysis of typical tasks, e.g. agriculture, industry and office workplaces
• Basic methods of workplace analysis and design
• Areas of ergonomics activities

Functional Anatomy – The Upper Extremities in HKE 101 (TBA)

This module introduces the study of musculoskeletal anatomy and then focuses on the functional application of the musculoskeletal system to movement. Structures of the upper extremities are covered in detail and related to movement capabilities and selected injury mechanisms.
• Basic Concepts and Terminology: anatomical planes, axes and directions, movement descriptions, forces, stress and strain, basic pathological models
• Overview of the skeletal system: structure of bone, types of bones, articulations, anatomical landmarks.
• Introduction to biomaterials of the musculoskeletal system
• Functional anatomy of the pectoral girdle, shoulder joint, elbow joint and wrist and hand

Anthropometry in HKE 101 (A. Todd)

The object of this module is to provide the student with a basic understanding of the morphology of the human body and its application to ergonomics, sports science and health.
• Assessment of frame size
• Anthropometric landmarks and techniques
• Assessment of body composition
• Skinfolds
• Bioelectrical impedance
• Hydrostatic weighing
• Somatotying
- Heath-Carter method
- Somatotyping and performance

Biomechanics in HKE 102 (A. Todd)

This course serves as a basic introduction to the biomechanical analysis of human movement and is comprised of 26 lectures. The focus of this course will be threefold, firstly to provide an introduction to the basic concepts of biomechanics including spatial displacement with respect to time. Secondly, it will focus on developing an understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and the implications this has for human performance. Lastly the course will focus on developing an understanding of the concept of centre of mass and how it can be determined during human movement.
• Basic introduction – What is biomechanics
• Introduction to movement - spatial displacement with respect to time: speed, velocity, acceleration, momentum
• Musculoskeletal levers
o What is a lever, lever classes
o Turning effects, torque
o Effort and Gear Ratios
o Design of human musculoskeletal system
- Mechanical advantage and disadvantage
- Design for strength including types of strength
- Design for speed and range of motion
- Force-velocity relationship
- Overcoming mechanical disadvantage
- Implications for human movement
o Resolution of musculoskeletal forces
- Geometric construction
- Pythagoras
- Basic Trigonometry
- Impact of line-of-action
- Equilibrium
- Procedural steps (1-6)
- Bi-articular muscles
- Shunt and spurt muscles
- Muscle fibre orientation

Cardiovascular Physiology in HKE 102 (C. Christie)

The focus in this module is specifically on the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and the concept of energy systems.
• Structure and function of the heart
• Hearts blood supply and the conduction system and pacemaker
• Cardiac cycle
• Cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume
• Hemodynamics
• Resistance to blood flow
• Blood pressure
• Circulatory adjustments
• Energy systems

Respiratory Physiology in HKE 102 (C Christie)

In this module the subject of physiology will be introduced and will focus specifically on the structure and function of the respiratory system.
• Introduction and anatomy of the system
• Pulmonary ventilation and ventilatory mechanics
• Ventilation and perfusion in the resting lung
• Exchange of O2 and CO2; Transport of O2 and CO2.
• Control of respiration
• Lung volumes and capacities; Lung function testing
• Asthma and exercise-induced asthma
• Industrial work and lung function and obesity and lung function
• “Ventilation and exercise”

Fundamental Concepts in HKE (part 2) (M. Goebel)

The objective of this module is to establish the appropriate "mind-set" for a thorough understanding of the study of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics.
Based on the complex set of objectives studying the Human Factor within the different contexts of life, the different focuses of study are outlined. This is embedded into the historical development of studying human performance, human health and human labour in order to explain the basic concepts of study that have developed since then. From this, students will learn about the different approaches to study the Human Factor from an anatomical/mechanical, physiological, mental, psychological, social and economical perspective, what establishes the holistic approach of HKE. Topics include:
• Concepts of health - the ultimate objective of Human Factors study
• The physical, social and economic environment of human activity and its relationship to study the Human Factor
• History of researching human performance, human health and human labour
• Concepts of the cognate disciplines of HKE
• Human variability
• Balancing performance and health in the different environments
• Concepts of tasks and resources
• Effects of behaviour and environmental conditions
• Holistic approach of Human Factors study
In the Ergonomics section of this module different domains of work life are highlighted with their specific challenges for ergonomics intervention. Basic principles of analysis and design are applied using such examples. Topics include:
• Objectives and basic paradigms of ergonomics
• Safety and Health legislation
• Examples from work life showing the different objectives and different approaches of ergonomics interventions
• Analysis of typical tasks, e.g. agriculture, industry and office workplaces
• Basic methods of workplace analysis and design
• Areas of ergonomics activities

 

HKE 2

 

The following modules make up the HKE II course. Please note that the details listed under each module are a guideline only and may be subject to change.

Functional Anatomy – The Trunk and Vertebral Column in HKE 201 (TBA)

This module continues the study of musculoskeletal anatomy by concentrating on the trunk, particularly the vertebral column. The main focus remains relating the musculoskeletal structure to movement capabilities under ‘normal’ conditions and during selected injuries / disorders.

Ergonomics: Workspace Design in HKE 201 (M. Goebel)

This module builds on the knowledge students would have gained from the Anthropometry course to use it for designing an external environment, such as workstations. This is performed in conjunction with the effects of different body posture on humans.
• Basic design paradigms
• Body postures and its effect on humans
• The standing operator
• The seated operator
• Workspace design
• Methods and Tools for Workstations design

Biomechanics in HKE 201 (A. Todd)

This topic provides a basic understanding of the key concepts for the mechanical analysis of the human body under static and dynamic conditions. These concepts include friction, force, work, power and the concept of energy. This quantitative approach provides a solid theoretical foundation for students who intend to conduct research in biomechanics.
• Centre of mass determination:
- Weight and Mass
- Defining COM
- COM in humans
- Determination of COM: balancing, suspension
- Application to human movement
- COM and stability
- COM determination of humans: manikins, reaction board, latest technologies
- Determination of body segment COM
• Friction:
- Surface Friction
- Constant of proportionality
- Surface area
• Force, work, power and the concept of energy:
- Definitions and conversions
- Force
- Work
- Power
- Energy
o Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion - - KE and Work
o Potential Energy: The expectation of motion - forms of PE
o Conservation of Energy
o How is energy conserved
o Heat, Work and Energy: metabolic equivalent
o The work-energy relationship
o The work-energy theorem
o Work-done in muscles
o Energy and speed
• Momentum – impulse relationship: Force of impact
o Newton’s II Law
o Quantifying the force of an impact
o Analysing collisions
- Non-elastic collisions
- Elastic collisions
- Coefficient of restitution
o Mechanics of Striking

Endocrine Physiology in HKE 202 (C Christie)

This section will focus specifically on the endocrine and neural systems with a specific focus on physical activity.
• Hormones and mechanism of action
• Endocrinology concepts
• Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
• Posterior pituitary
• Pancreas
• Blood glucose control at rest and during exercise
• Diabetes
• Thyroid gland
• Adrenal gland
• Endocrine function and exercise

Muscle Physiology in HKE 202 (C Christie)

This part of the Physiology module will focus specifically on the structure and function of skeletal muscle tissue. Adaptations to endurance and strength training as well as different types of muscle contractions will also be covered.
• Histology of the nervous system
• Ion channels
• Resting membrane potentials
• Graded and Action potentials
• Transmission at synapses
• Types of neural circuits
• Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System
• Reflexes and reflex arcs
• Muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs
• Characteristics, Types, Functions and Gross Anatomy of muscle tissue
• Microscopic Anatomy
• Subcellular Organisation
• Motor units
• Muscle Contraction (ECC)
• Types of muscle contraction
• Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
• Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness
• Adaptation to endurance training
• Adaptation to strength training
• Deadaptation
• Force-velocity relationship
• Length-tension
• Muscle cramps
• Muscle Fatigue
Human Information Processing: Human Senses in HKE 202 (TBA)
This module will focus specifically on the visual, auditory and body senses. It will provide insight in the physiological, physical and perceptual background.
• Vision
- Basic physics of light
- Functional anatomy of the eye
- Field of vision
- Dark light adaptation
- Visual illusions
- Eye movements
- Illumination
• Sound
- Basic physics of sound
- Functional anatomy of the ear
- Perception of pitch and loudness
- Age-related and noise-induces hearing loss
- Measuring of noise
- Noise reduction
• Body senses
- Taste
- Olfaction
- General senses: Touch, pain, temperature
- The vestibular system
- Vibration

HKE3

The following modules make up the HKE III course. Please note that the details listed under each module are a guideline only and may be subject to change.

Exercise Physiology in HKE 301 (C Christie)

The second semester section will focus on the concept of energy expenditure including how it is measured and typical energy cost values during different activities. Physiological responses to activities of varying intensities and durations will be discussed as well as substrate utilisation and the concept of fatigue. The energy balance equation will be introduced and over and under nutrition will be covered.
• Overview of the energy systems
• Measurement of energy expenditure (EE)
• EE at rest and daily rates of EE
• EE during physical activities
• Exercise domains
• Regulation of CHO and fat metabolism during exercise
• Concept of maximal oxygen consumption
• Limitations to maximal exercise
• Limitations to submaximal exercise
• Predicting performance
• Physiological models – Fatigue
• The concept of energy balance
• Principles of everyday eating
• Energy intakes (diets) of South Africans – affluent and rural
• Energy balance and obesity
• Obesity and the risk for cardiovascular disease
• Energy balance and eating disorders
• Physical activity guidelines for healthy individuals

Physiology: Nutrition in HKE 302 (C Christie)

This module concentrates on nutritional strategies for the enhancement of sport and working performance. Thermoregulation, heat stress and fluid balance will be covered in the latter part of the semester.
• Principles of everyday eating:
• General overview of nutrition
• Fats and oils
• Carbohydrates
• Glycemic index (including 2 journal articles)
• Fibre; sugar; electrolytes; alcohol
• Protein
• Vitamins and minerals
• Food labelling
• Role of dietician
• Energy requirements and dietary needs for endurance activities
• How the body uses the food we ingest
• Carbohydrate loading for endurance exercise
• High fat diets
• Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise

Human Information Processing: Decision Making in HKE 302 (TBA)
This module focuses on memory and information processing as well as the principles of Human-Machine-Interaction.
• Information processing
o Models of human information processing
o Short term memory
o Long term memory
o Remembering and forgetting
o Attention
• Human Machine interaction
o Characteristics of Human-machine-communication
o Display types and sizes
o Compatibility and conventions

Human Information Processing: Motor performance in HKE 301 (M. Goebel)

This module integrates the functional aspects of force production, sensory and cognitive control as well as metabolic support to a holistic concept of human motor performance. It aims to deliver a fundamental description of human performance for all types of human actions, in sports as well as in work life.
• Types of movements and movement classification
• Composition of complex movements and reaction behaviour
• Organisation of the motor system
• Generation of movement pattern
• Sensory and autonomous movement control
• Learning and training of complex movements
• Human fatigue

Ergonomics: Tool Design in HKE 301 (M. Goebel)

This module is enhancing the knowledge of biomechanics to the interaction of humans with the environment. This is relevant for all types of handles and tools humans will use in work life, at sports activities or in the domestic area in order to obtain an effective, efficient and safe usage.
Lectures will explain the force transmission between the human hand and an object, and further with its reverse effects to the human, considering the human characteristics of movement and force production.
• Force transmission between the human hand and handle
• Action and reaction forces
• Friction and form coupling
• Basics of grip design: forms and profiles
• Mass distribution and hand position
• Reaction forces
• Arm and body movements

Macroergonomics and Work organisation in HKE 301 (S Zschernack)

This module has a two- fold focus: 1. Students will be introduced to the basic methods of work organisation and time management that are used in industry and administration etc. 2. Ergonomics knowledge will be applied on the macroscopic level of work design and work organisations. This integrated concept will enable students to perform a holistic work design and to co-operate with other work designers (e.g. industrial engineers) by introducing the ergonomics aspects of work design.
• Historical development of work organisation
• Methods of motion and time study
• Categorisation of working procedures
• Stop watch studies, work sampling and Methods Time Measurement (MTM)
• Resource logistics and forms of organisation
• Planning and assignment of workforce
• Human Technology Organisation (HTO) Approach
• Participatory Ergonomics
• Consideration of Human variability and human reliability
• Training and development of human resources

Functional Anatomy – Lower Extremities in HKE 302 (M. Mattison)

This module introduces concludes the HKE study of musculoskeletal anatomy by focussing on the structures of the lower extremities. The pelvis, hip, knee and foot are covered in detail and related to movement capabilities and selected injury mechanisms.

Environmental Ergonomics in HKE 301 (S Zschernack)

This module will focus on the environmental factors that need to be taken into consideration for human centred work design.
• Light and Illumination
• Noise
• Vibration
• Other environmental hazards

Biomechanics in HKE 302 (A. Todd)

This course introduces students to more advanced biomechanical concepts and will be split into two sections. First it will focus on lower limb biomechanics with particular attention being given to developing an understanding of human gait and isokinetic analysis of gait pathologies. The second section will focus on the biomechanics of the lower back.
Section 1: Lower limb biomechanics – Gait analysis and isokinetic assessment
• Gait terminology
• The Gait cycle: heel contact, foot flat, mid-stance, heel off, toe off, mid swing
• Muscle activation during gait
• The six determinants of gait: pelvic rotation, pelvic tilt, knee flexion, ankle mechanism, foot mechanism, lateral displacement of body
• Ground reaction forces
• Lower limb pathologies: An isokinetic overview
- Overview of isokinetics
- Isokinetic testing
- Interpretation of isokinetic data
- Correlation of isokinetic graphs with pathologies
- Scientific and clinical rationale
- Eccentric exercise and isokinetics
Part 2: Biomechanics of the lower back
• Introduction – What is back pain
• Lower back pain and MMH
• Forces acting on the lower back
- Internal and external forces
- Intraabdominal forces
- Determining compression and shear forces
• Assessment of spinal loading
- Estimating forces
- Static and dynamic models
• What really causes injury?
- Structural tolerance
- Biomechanical logic
• Risk factors at work
• Causation and lower back pain
• Prevention of injury

Ergonomics: Fatigue and Shiftwork in HKE 302 (TBA)

This module will give insight how time (duration, time of the day) and motivational aspects influence human performance and highlight organisational measures to reduce negative effects on human performance.
• Fatigue and endurance
• Endurance of static and dynamic muscle work, muscle exhaustion
• Types of Fatigue
• Fatigue-similar conditions: monotony, saturation, overload
• The vigilance-phenomenon
• Work-to-rest regimes
• Measure in work structuring: job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation
• Biochronology and shift work
• Circadian rhythm of bodily functions
• Circadian rhythm of human performance
• Implications for shift work and shift design
• Psychological and behavioural aspects
• Motivation
• Satisfaction

Last Modified: Wed, 28 Nov 2012 11:57:00 SAST