SPatial And Time Series Information Modelling framework (SPATSIM)
During the late 1980s and early 1990s the IWR developed a DOS based modelling system in ‘C’ which became known as HYMAS (Hydrological Modelling Application System) and was used in many hydrological modelling projects including the UNESCO Southern African FRIEND programme.
HYMAS represented an integrated modelling environment with supporting tools for data preparation, data analysis and data display and incorporated a number of different types of rainfall-runoff model as well as other water resource analysis models. During the late 1990s it was clear that a move to the Windows environment was required and the IWR adopted Delphi as their programming language of choice. At the same time, the IWR was involved in developing tools to support the determination of the ecological Reserve and it was decided to develop these as stand-alone Windows compatible programs rather than to add them to the DOS based HYMAS package. Amongst the tools developed, were a generic time series analysis and display package (TSOFT). Additional models were also developed.
During 1999 it became apparent that there was a need to integrate some of the old tools, which still remained part of HYMAS and the new tools, which were developed for a Windows environment. It was therefore decided to embark on the complete conversion of all the HYMAS facilities and tools into an improved and re-designed Windows package that would form the basis for future model development and application. The result is a package referred to as SPATSIM which is developed in Delphi with a GIS front end (using ESRI Map Objects) and where all of the data are stored and accessed through a structured database.
SPATSIM main screen (showing variations in mean annual rainfall for South Africa)
Copyright and contributions
SPATSIM has been largely developed with the funding support of the Water Research Commission of South Africa and the copyright to the software rests with the WRC and the IWR jointly. However, other organisations have also contributed through adding their models into the SPATSIM system with some assistance from the IWR, or in the case of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) , through funding the IWR to add new routines or data analysis methods. These contributions are all welcome and gratefully acknowledged. Further reference to supporting organisations is made within the specific relevant components of the software and the help system.
What is SPATSIM?
SPATSIM is an integrated hydrology and water resource information management and modelling system. It makes use of ESRI Map Objects and the Delphi programming language to create a data management environment with a spatial information front end and a relational database structure to provide access to a wide range of different types of hydrological and water resource information. The package includes many utilities for importing data of all types, viewing, graphically displaying and editing data, sharing data with other users and further processing data to create new information. It also provides access to a wide range of linked models and data analysis procedures that are typically used in water resource assessments (rainfall-runoff models, design floods, reservoir water balance models) and ecological water requirement assessments. It has been used extensively by the Institute for Water Research and has been distributed to a number of other organisations both within South Africa and elsewhere.
There are many models and data analysis procedures that have been added to SPATSIM over the history of it’s development. Some of those that are more frequently used by the IWR staff and others are listed below:
- A model to calibrate the parameters of a baseflow separation model.
- A model to patch flow data using flow duration curve properties.
- Pitman monthly semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model (various versions that include parameter uncertainty, hydrological response constraints and stochastic rainfall inputs).
- VTI (variable time interval) rainfall-runoff model.
- Desktop Reserve model (a low-confidence desktop model for determining environmental flow requirements).
- Revised Desktop Reserve model that includes links between hydrology, hydraulics and ecology in an environmental flow determination model.
- Month to day disaggregation model used to generate daily time series of stream flow from simulated monthly time series using daily rainfall data.
- The Water Quality Systems Assessment Model
- Drought analysis routines based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI).
Analysis of regional variations in SPI over Southern Africa using Climate Research Unit (CRU) data from the University of East Anglia
- Water quality situation assessment model (a developing model for simulating daily water quality variables from monthly simulations obtained from a rainfall-runoff model or a systems yield model.
Many of these models have been the subject of scientific reports and papers in international hydrological journals. There is little doubt that SPATSIM has enhanced the hydrological research capacity of the IWR, as well as several partner organisations that have made use of the software. It has also been used in a large number of consultancy projects, many of which were related to determining the environmental flow requirements of South African rivers, but it has also been used for similar purposes elsewhere in Africa as well for reservoir design, assessing the irrigation potential of an area and for more general basin-wide water resources assessment and planning. Apart from many river systems in South Africa, the IWR versions of the Pitman model have been applied to rivers in India, the Dominican Republic, as well as large basins in Africa (Zambezi, Limpopo, Congo, Okavango, Great Ruaha and others).
SPATSIM and some sample applications are freely available and can be downloaded.
Small Dams Density Index
Shapefile for Small Dams Density Index for South Africa in article:
Mantel S.K., Rivers-Moore N.A. and Ramulifho P. (2017) Small dams need
consideration in riverscape conservation assessments. Aquatic
Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 2017: 1–7;
Last Modified :Thu, 05 Oct 2017 08:42:17 SAST