After his state examination in 2010 Dr. Michael M. Kretzer worked for Molteno and the Reading Association of South Africa (RASA). In 2012 he began as a research associate for the Center for international Development and Environmental Research (ZEU) at the Justus-Liebig-University in Giessen, Germany and started with his PhD at the Department of Human Geography and Development Research (Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Germany). For his PhD study he went several times between 2012 and 2016 to South Africa for data collection in the three research provinces. He finished and published his PhD study early 2018. His PhD-thesis was “Potential of the implementation of language policy in the education system of South Africa: Case study of Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province”. Dr. Kretzer is currently a NRF SARChI Chair Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the School of Languages and Literatures at Rhodes University.
His focuses are education systems and language policies and the relationship between education and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in South Africa, Malawi and Botswana. Hence, he also went for field research several times to Botswana and Malawi. He also focuses on Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) in Southern and Eastern Africa. Dr. Michael M. Kretzer published several chapters in books and various articles in different journals like the Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, South African Journal of African Languages and the South African Geographical Journal.
Research areas/ interests
Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly South Africa, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia
Language policy and education systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
Quantitative and Qualitative methods of empirical research
Linguistic Landscapes (LL)
Language Policy and Nation-Building
Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS)
Kretzer, M. M., Kaschula, R. H. (Forthcoming): Language Policies at schools in increasingly mobile societies: Examples from Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo and North West. In: Christa van der Walt, Verbra Pfeiffer (Eds.), Multilingual classroom contexts: Perspectives from the chalk face (SunMedia).
Kaschula, R. H., Kretzer, M. M. & P. Mose (Forthcoming), Mother-Tongue Instruction in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Prospects. In: : Marten, L., Nancy C. Kula, N. C., Jochen Zeller, J. and E. Hurst (Hg.), Oxford Guide to the Bantu Languages.
Kretzer, M. M. (2019): Malta. In: Dittmann, A. & W. Gieler (Eds.): Europa-Lexikon. Geographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik und Wirtschaft. (Peter Lang) Frankfurt am Main, 317-325.
Kretzer, M. M. (2019): Zypern. In: Dittmann, A. & W. Gieler (Eds.): Europa-Lexikon. Geographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik und Wirtschaft. (Peter Lang) Frankfurt am Main, 657-670.
Kaschula, R. H. & Kretzer, M. M. (2019): ”Hayi, they don’t know Xhosa”: Comparative isiXhosa teaching challenges in Eastern Cape and Gauteng. In: South African Journal of African Languages, DOI: 10.1080/02572117.2019.1672318.
Kretzer, M. M. & Kaschula, R. H. (2019): (Latent) Potentials to incorporate and improve environmental knowledge using African Languages in Agriculture lessons in Malawi. In: Walter Leal and Sarah Hemstock (Eds.) ‘Climate Change and the Role of Education’ “Climate Change Management” published by Springer, 401 – 418.
Kretzer M.M. (2019) Free Education: Origins, Achievements, and Current Situation.
In: Leal Filho W., Azul A., Brandli L., Özuyar P., Wall T. (eds) Quality Education. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham.
Kretzer, M. M. & Kaschula, R. H. (2019) Language policy and linguistic landscapes at schools in South Africa,
International Journal of Multilingualism, DOI: 10.1080/14790718.2019.1666849.
Michael M. Kretzer & Russell H. Kaschula (2019): (Unused) potentials of educators’ covert language policies at public schools in Limpopo, South Africa, Current Issues in Language Planning, DOI: 10.1080/14664208.2019.1641349.
Kaschula, R. H. & Kretzer, M. M. (2019): The Politics of Language Education in Africa. In: Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics. DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.750.
Kretzer, Michael M. (2018).The potential Effects of Language Attitude for the Use of Indigenous Languages at Primary Schools in South Africa – Case Study in Gauteng and North-West Province. In (eds): De Lange, R., Stevens, I., Kruger, R., and Sirayi, M. The arts and indigenous knowledge systems in a modern[ized] Africa: Newcastle upon Tyne. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Pg. 245 – 261.
Kretzer, M. M. (2018). Implementierungspotential der Sprachenpolitik im Bildungssystem Südafrikas. Eine Untersuchung in den Provinzen Gauteng, Limpopo und North West. [Potential of the implementation of language policy in the education system of South Africa : case study of Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province] (Unpublished PhD thesis) Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
Kretzer, M. M. (2017): Linguistic repertoire and language practices of pupils at secondary schools in Botswana: a case study, In: Ralarala, M., Barris, K., Ivala, E. und S. Siyepu (Hg.), (CASAS BOOK SERIES): African Language and Language Practice Research in the 21st Century: Interdisciplinary Themes and Perspectives. Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society (CASAS), Cape Town, 163 - 186.
Kretzer, Michael M., Engler, Steven, Gondwe James & Esther Trost (2017). Fighting Resource Scarcity - Sustainability in the education system of Malawi: Case Study of Karonga, Mzimba and Nkhata Bay district. In: South African Geographical Journal, 99: 3, 235-251. DOI: 10.1080/03736245.2016.1231624; Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03736245.2016.1231624.
Kretzer, Michael M. (2016). Chancen und Grenzen von „Agriculture“ als Schulfach für eine nachhaltige Lebensführung. Fallstudie Karonga, Nkahata Bay und Mzimba Distrikt in Malawi. In (Hg.): Engler, S., Bommert, W. und Stengel, O. Regional, innovativ und gesund – Nachhaltige Ernährung als Teil der großen Transformation. Göttingen. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 243 – 261.
Kumwenda, Joshua & Kretzer, Michael M. (2016). Language policy in Malawi: a study of its contexts, factors for its development and consequences. In: Marang: Journal of Language and Literature, 27, 20-38.
Kretzer, Michael M. (2016). Variations of overt and covert language practices of educators in the North West Province: Case study of the use of Setswana and Sesotho at primary and secondary schools. In: South African Journal of African Languages, 36:1, 15-24, DOI:10.1080/02572117.2016.1186891; Open access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02572117.2016.1186891.
Engler, Steven & Kretzer, Michael M. (2014). Agriculture and education: Agricultural education as an adaptation to food insecurity in Malawi. In: Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(6), 224-231.
Kretzer, Michael M. (2013). The Importance of Language Attitude Regarding First-Language-Based Education in South Africa. Case Study in Gauteng and North-West Province. In: Facets of Linguistics. Proceedings of the 14thNorddeutsches Linguistisches Kolloquium 2013 in Halle (Saale), eds. Ammermann, Anne / Brock, Alexander / Pflaeging, Jana / Schildhauer, Peter (eds.). Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Peter Lang, 217-229.
“Nachhaltigkeit als Thema in den Bildungssystemen in Sub-Sahara Afrika” at Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany (31.10.2019).
“(Unused) Potentials of Multimodal Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms in South Africa” at the Multilingual Awareness and Multilingual Practices (MAMP19) Conference at the Thomas Moore University, Antwerp, Belgium (28.10.2019).
“Language Policies at schools in increasingly mobile societies: Examples from Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo and North West” at the DKG at the Christian-Albrechts-University
“Teaching in Sub-Saharan Africa: 'How can you teach pupils if you do not use their language?'” at the Postgraduate Conference “Postgraduate Education is a Public Good” at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa (22.08.2019).
“Language Policy and Linguistic Landscapes at schools in South Africa” at the 21st Biennial ALASA International Conference at the University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein, South Africa (08.07.2019).
“Science Education (Agriculture) in Malawi using English and its challenges at schools” at the 10th Department of English International Conference at the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana (20.06.2019).
“Hidden and unused potentials of teachers’ covert Language Practices at public schools in Limpopo” at the Multilingual Theories and Practices (MTP19) at Ionian University, Corfu, Greece (09.05.2019).
“Bildung und nachhaltige Entwicklung in Sub-Sahara Afrika” at Kulturwissenschaftliches Institut (KWI) Essen, Essen, Germany (02.05.2019).
“(Latent) potentials to incorporate and improve environmental knowledge using African Languages in Agriculture lessons in Malawi” at the International Symposium on Climate Change and the Role of Education at Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln, United Kingdom (12.04 - 13.04.2019).
“Language Policies in schools in Sub-Saharan Africa and its social consequences” at the MuDD2019 - Multilingualism, Diversity and Democracy Conference at Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden (8.04 - 10.04.2019).
"Chances and Obstacles of teaching Science (Agriculture) at Malawian schools considering Indigenous Knowledge (IK) and African Languages" at the Society of South African Geographers (SSAG) Conference at University of Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein and QwaQwa, South Africa (30.9 - 5.10).
“(Unused) potentials of educators’ covert Language Policies at public schools in Limpopo” at the 5th International Conference on Language and Literacy Education at the University of Witwatersrand (WITS) Parktown Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa (17.8 – 19.8.2018).
“”They speak Setswana at home, why teaching it?” – Daily realities of Language Policies in classrooms in Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province” at the Postgraduate Conference “Postgraduate Education is a Public Good” at Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa (26.7 – 27.7.2018).
“A Comparison of educators smuggling African Languages into classrooms in Gauteng, Limpopo and North West Province” at the 19th Interim Conference of the African Languages Association of Southern Africa Conference and Sintu 7, 7th International Conference on Bantu Languages at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (9.07. – 11.07.2018).
“Disruptions and continuities of the educational language policy in Malawi: a case study of the Northern Region” at the 20th International Congress of Linguists at the at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (2.07. – 6.07.2018).
“Impact of Usage or Non-Usage of African Languages in education systems in border regions: Case study of Malawi and Zambia” at the Sociolinguistics Symposium 22 at the University of Auckland, New Zealand (27.06 – 30.06.2018).
“Language practice(s) of pupils minority language(s) at secondary schools in Botswana” at the 16th International Conference on Minority Languages (ICML XVI) at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland (28.08. - 30.08.2017).
“Overt language policy and covert language practice(s) at secondary schools in Botswana and South Africa” at the combined CLASA-Multilingualism and Transformation in the Knowledge Age Conference at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (25.06 - 29.06.2017).
“Influence of language attitude(s) towards English and indigenous languages: mismatch between the overt language policy and covert language practice(s) at public schools in Botswana and South Africa” at the 43rd African Literature Association (ALA) Annual Conference, “Africa and the World: Literature, Politics, and Global Geographies” at the Yale University in New Haven, USA (14. - 17.06.2017).
“Language policy in Malawi: Factors, contexts and consequences” at the International Conference: "Multilingualism in Society, Politics and Education" at the SLI Conference at the Albrecht-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany (16. - 18. 03.2017).
“Fighting Resource Scarcity: Sustainability in the Education System of Malawi – Case Study of Karonga, Mzimba and Nkhata Bay District” at the 59th African Studies Association (ASA) at the Howard University in Washington, USA (1. - 3.12.2016).
“Translanguaging between Setswana and other Indigenous Languages at Secondary Schools in Botswana and North West Province in South Africa” at the Annual meeting of the Arbeitskreises Subsaharisches Afrika (AKSA) at the DGfG at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany (25. -26.11.2016).
“The usage and appearance of Setswana in public domains: Case study of urban and rural areas in Botswana and South Africa” at the 46th Pozna? Linguistic Meeting (PLM2016) at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Pozna?, Poland (15. - 17.09.2016).
“Pitfalls of the implementation of language policy at public secondary schools in Botswana” at the WITS International Language and Literacy Conference (WILLC 2016) at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa (12. - 14.08.2016).
“Reciprocal relationship of language attitude, language practice and (covert) language policy (at schools): Case study of selected provinces in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa” at the Molteno Institute for Language and Literacy (MILL) in Johannesburg, South Africa (29.07.2016).
“Factors, Chances and Obstacles of education systems for development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Examples from Botswana, Malawi and South Africa” at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (18.07.2016).
"Patterns of public appearance of indigenous languages in Southern Africa – a case study of Setswana in Botswana and Chichewa and Chitumbuka in Malawi" at the LSSA-SAALA-SAALT Conference at University of Western Cape in Cape Town, South Africa (04. - 07.07.2016).
“Multilingual Linguistic Repertoire and Varieties of Code-Switching at Secondary Schools in Botswana: Case Study in Kgatleng, South-East and Southern District” at the 42nd African Literature Association (ALA) Annual Conference, "Justice and Human Dignity in Africa and the African Diaspora" at the Emory University and Kennesaw State University in Atlanta, USA (06. - 09.04.2016).
"Overt language policy and covert language practices in South African TV channels", at the Cornell University in Ithaca, USA (5.04.2016).
“Chances & obstacles of language policy within the Malawian education system” at the 4th International Conference Language, Education & Diversity 2015 (LED) at the University of Auckland, New Zealand(23. - 26.11.2015).
"Areas, contexts and potentials of code-switching at South African schools: case study of the Nguni-and Sotho-Cluster in Gauteng and North West" at the 9th Pan-African Literacy for All & 10th Reading Association of South Africa (RASA) National Literacy Conference at University of Cape Town in Cape Town, South Africa (02. - 05.09.2015).
"Differences of Language Practice at primary and secondary schools in Gauteng and North West province" at the 3rd International Conference in Academic and Professional Communication at University of Botswana in Gaborone (15. - 17.07.2015).
"Language Practice and Appearance of African Languages in the South African education system - Case Study at primary and secondary schools in Gauteng Province" at the 18th International Conference of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology in Cape Town, South Africa (24. - 26.06.2015).
"Variations between oral and written Communication at Schools in Gauteng and North West Province: Case study of the use of Sesotho sa Leboa (Sepedi), Sesotho, Setswana and isiZulu at the 41st Annual Conference of the African Literature Association (ALA), at the University of Bayreuth, Germany (03. - 06.06.2015).
Referent des Projekttages "Nähe und Ferne: Leben, Kultur und Bildung in Sub-Sahara Afrika" am Privatgymnasium Dr. Richter in Kelkheim, Germany (17.04.2015).
"Scope and Variety of Code-Switching at South African schools" at the International Conference on Bilingualism at the University of Malta in Valletta (23. - 25.03.2015).
Referent des Projekttages „Nationalstaatsentwicklung und Nationalbewusstsein in Südafrika“ an der Stiftschule St. Johann in Amöneburg, Germany (23.02.2015)
“Regional differences of Language Practice at Primary and Secondary Schools in North-West - A Case Study of the Use of Setswana and Sesotho” at the 9th Annual Reading Association of South Africa (RASA) Conference “Reading the Change: Changing the Reading: Where are we 20 years after 1994?” at the Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa (12.09. – 14.09.2014).
“The Influence of language practices and attitudes on language policy in the South African education system and their implications on oral and written literature” at the 2nd International Conference: Orature and its Place in Malawian Literature at the Mzuzu University in Mzuzu, Malawi (29.07.2014 – 31.07.2014).
“Regional differences of Language Practice at Primary and Secondary Schools in North-West - A Case Study of the Use of Setswana and Sesotho” at the 18th Interim Conference of the African Languages Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) “Reclaiming our Heritage through Language” at Walter Sisulu University in Mthatha, South Africa (30.06. - 02.07.2014).
“Effect of Language Attitudes on African Languages within the South African Education system - Case Study of the Use of Setswana in North-West Province” at the Joint LSSA/SAALA/SALT Annual Conference 2014 at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa (24. -26.06.2014).
"Language practice in the education system of South Africa – Is there a future for African Language?" at the 6th International Linguistic Landscapes Conference “Hope and Precarity” at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa (9.04. – 11.04.2014).
"Implementierungspotential der Sprachenpolitik im Bildungssystem Südafrikas - Fallstudie Gauteng, Limpopo und North-West Provinz" im Rahmen des Gießener Geographischen Colloquiums at the Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Germany (13.01.2014).
"The effects of Internationalisation for the use of indigenous languages at primary schools in South Africa. Case study in Gauteng and North-West Province" at the 2nd International Arts Conference "The arts and indigenous knowledge systems in a modern(ised) Africa" at the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Pretoria, South Africa (25. - 27.09.2013).
"Perceptions of educational stakeholders towards the usage of Setswana in educational institutions. Case study in Bojanala and Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District in North-West Province" at the 17th Biennial international conference of the African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA) at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria, South Africa (17. - 19.07.2013).
„Impact of the Language Practice and Language Attitude/Ideology for the Implementation of the Language Policy in the Education System in South Africa” at the LSSA/SAALA/SALT Conference “Language: Policy, Planning, Practice and Principles” at the Stellenbosch University, South Africa (01. ? 04.07.2013).
"The influence of language attitude in day to day work at educational institutions in Gauteng and North?West Province: The case study of schools, universities and NGOs" at the 7th international conference "Language, literature, theatre and indigenous knowledge" at the University of Botswana in Gaborone (12. ? 14.06.2013).
"The importance of language attitude regarding First language (L1) based education in South Africa - Case study in Gauteng and North-West Province" at the 14th Norddeutschen Linguistischen Colloquium at the Martin-Luther-University in Halle-Wittenberg, Germany (15. – 17.03.2013).
“Inter-dependency of language ideology, language practice and language management at tertiary level in South Africa” at the 2nd Department of African Languages and Literature conference at the University of Botswana in Gaborone (12. – 14.07.2012).
Kretzer, M. M. & Kaschula, R. H. (2019): South African teachers switch
languages in class: why policy should follow, The Conversation,
Kaschula, R. H. & Kretzer, M. M. (2019): Multilingual schools, multilingual universities: an interview with Russell Kaschula and Michael Kretzer, https://www.litnet.co.za/multi
Kretzer (2019): SA teachers and code-switching why the policy should change to make this acceptable. Radio-Interview, Podcast available: http://www.capetalk.co.za/podc
Kretzer (2019): Education feature: The importance of mother tongue education, Radio Interview, Podcast available: https://iono.fm/e/744064.
Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices (since 2019)
Journal of Multilingual Theories and Practices (since 2020)
South African Journal of African Languages (SAJAL) (since 2019)
Per Linguam (since 2019)
Journal for Language Teaching (JLT) (since 2019)
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus (since 2019)
African Education Review (since 2018)
Reading Association of South Africa (RASA)
Gießener Geographische Gesellschaft (GGG)
Verband für Geographie an deutschen Hochschulen und Forschungseinrichtungen (VGDH)
Alumni Netzwerk Subsahara Afrika e.V.
Verein zur Förderung der Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung e.V.
African Language Association of Southern Africa (ALASA)
African Literature Association (ALA)
GGS Peer Mentoring Gruppe "Empirische Bildungs- und Sozialforschung"
Arbeitskreis Subsaharisches Afrika
11/2010 – 04/2011 PROMOS Scholarship for internship in South Africa (DAAD)
04/2012 – 03/2015 DEY-Scholarship (Diocese Limburg)
Last Modified: Wed, 08 Apr 2020 09:06:55 SAST